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Erhöhte Effizienz wird durch eine längere Handelszeit erreicht 8 Jahre statt 5 Jahreeine robuste und jährlich sinkende Emissionsminderung 21 Reduktionen im Jahr 2020 gegenüber 2005 und eine deutliche Steigerung der Versteigerung von weniger als 4 Jahren In Phase 2 bis mehr als die Hälfte in Phase 3. In vielen Bereichen wurde mehr Harmonisierung vereinbart, unter anderem in Bezug auf das Cap-Setting ein EU-weites Cap anstelle der nationalen Caps in den Phasen 1 und 2 und die Regeln für die Übergangsfreiheit.

Die Fairness des Systems wurde durch den Übergang zu EU-weiten freien Zuteilungsregeln für Industrieanlagen und durch die Einführung eines Umverteilungsmechanismus, der neue Mitgliedstaaten berechtigt, mehr Zertifikate zu vergeben, erheblich erhöht. Wie sieht der endgültige Text gegenüber dem ursprünglichen Vorschlag der Kommission aus.

Die vom Europäischen Rat für Frühjahr 2007 beschlossenen Klima - und Energieziele wurden beibehalten und die Gesamtarchitektur des Kommissionsvorschlags zum EU-EHS bleibt erhalten. Der Hauptunterschied gegenüber dem Vorschlag besteht darin, dass die Versteigerung von Zertifikaten langsamer abläuft. Das heißt, dass es eine EU-weite Obergrenze für die Anzahl der Emissionsberechtigungen geben wird, die jährlich auf einer linearen Trendlinie sinkt, die über das Ende der dritten Handelsperiode hinausgeht 2013-2020.

Darüber hinaus ist die Höhe der Freibeträge, die ein Mitgliedstaat Kraftwerken zuteilen kann, auf 70 Kohlendioxidemissionen relevanter Anlagen in Phase 1 beschränkt und in den darauf folgenden Jahren sinkend. Darüber hinaus kann die kostenfreie Zuteilung in Phase 3 nur für Kraftwerke erfolgen, die bis Ende 2008 in Betrieb oder im Bau sind. Was sind die wichtigsten Änderungen gegenüber dem Kommissionsvorschlag Zusammenfassend sind die wichtigsten Änderungen, die an dem Vorschlag vorgenommen wurden, wie folgt Einige Mitgliedstaaten haben eine fakultative und vorübergehende Abweichung von der Regel erlaubt, dass keine Zulagen kostenlos zugewiesen werden sollen Diese Ausnahmeregelung steht Mitgliedstaaten zur Verfügung, die bestimmte Bedingungen für die Zusammenschaltung ihres Stromnetzes, den Anteil eines einzigen fossilen Brennstoffs an der Stromerzeugung und BIPcapita im Verhältnis zum EU-27-Durchschnitt erfüllen.

Weitere Einzelheiten finden sich in der Richtlinie über die Kriterien für die Festlegung der Sektoren oder Teilsektoren, für die ein erhebliches Risiko von CO2-Emissionen besteht. Siehe Antwort auf Frage 15 unten. Und ein früheres Datum der Veröffentlichung der Kommissionsliste dieser Sektoren 31. Dezember 2009. Die freie Zuteilung an die Industrie beschränkt sich auf den Anteil dieser Emissionen an den gesamten Emissionen in den Jahren 2005 bis 2007.

Die Mitgliedstaaten können auch bestimmte Anlagen für CO 2 - Kosten, die in den Elektrizitätspreisen verbilligt werden, entschädigen, wenn die CO 2 - Kosten sie sonst der Gefahr von CO2-Leckagen aussetzen könnten. Die Kommission hat sich verpflichtet, die gemeinschaftlichen Leitlinien für staatliche Beihilfen für den Umweltschutz in dieser Hinsicht zu ändern.

Siehe Antwort zu Frage 15 unten. Das Niveau der Versteigerung von Zertifikaten für die nicht exponierte Industrie wird sich, wie von der Kommission vorgeschlagen, linear erhöhen, aber bis zum Jahr 2020 wird sie 70 erreichen, um bis zum Jahr 2027 100 zu erreichen. Wie im Vorschlag der Kommission vorgesehen Werden zehn der Zertifikate für die Versteigerung von den Mitgliedstaaten mit einem hohen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen an diejenigen mit niedrigem Pro-Kopf-Einkommen umverteilt, um die finanzielle Leistungsfähigkeit der letzteren zu stärken, um in klimafreundliche Technologien zu investieren.

Für einen weiteren Umverteilungsmechanismus von 2 der Versteigerungszulagen wurde eine Regelung eingeführt, die den Mitgliedstaaten Rechnung trägt, die 2005 eine Verringerung von mindestens 20 Treibhausgasemissionen gegenüber dem im Kyoto-Protokoll festgelegten Referenzjahr erreicht hatten. Der Anteil der Versteigerungserlöse, den die Mitgliedstaaten zur Bekämpfung und Anpassung an den Klimawandel vor allem in der EU, aber auch in den Entwicklungsländern empfehlen, wird von 20 auf 50 erhöht.

Der Text sieht eine Ergänzung des vorgeschlagenen zulässigen Niveaus vor Der Nutzung der JICDM-Kredite im Rahmen des 20 Szenarios für die bestehenden Betreiber, die im Zeitraum 2008-2012 die niedrigsten Budgets für die Einfuhr und Verwendung dieser Kredite in Bezug auf die Zuteilungen und den Zugang zu Krediten erhalten haben. Neue Sektoren, neue Marktteilnehmer in den Jahren 2013-2020 und 2008-2012 können auch Kredite verwenden. Der Gesamtbetrag der zu verwendenden Kredite wird jedoch nicht mehr als 50 der Kürzungen zwischen 2008 und 2020 betragen.

Auf der Grundlage einer strengeren Emissionsminderung im Rahmen eines zufriedenstellenden internationalen Übereinkommens könnte die Kommission einen zusätzlichen Zugang zu CER und ERU ermöglichen Betreiber im Gemeinschaftssystem. Siehe Antwort auf Frage 20 unten. Die Erlöse aus der Versteigerung von 300 Millionen Zertifikaten aus der Reserve der neuen Marktteilnehmer werden zur Unterstützung von bis zu zwölf Projekten zur CO2-Abscheidung und - speicherung sowie Projekten eingesetzt, die innovative Technologien für erneuerbare Energien demonstrieren.

Eine Reihe von Bedingungen sind diesem Finanzierungsmechanismus beigefügt. Siehe Antwort auf Frage 30 unten. Die Möglichkeit, kleine Verbrennungsanlagen auszuschließen, sofern sie gleichwertigen Maßnahmen unterliegen, wurde erweitert, um alle kleinen Anlagen unabhängig von ihrer Tätigkeit zu erfüllen, die Emissionsgrenzwerte wurden von 10. Überdies wird vorbehaltlich einer Überprüfung, wenn eine zufriedenstellende internationale Vereinbarung getroffen wird, Anlagen in allen exponierten Industrien 100 kostenlose Zertifikate erhalten, soweit sie die effizienteste Technologie verwenden.

000 Tonnen CO 2 pro Jahr erhöht und die Kapazitätsgrenze, die Verbrennungsanlagen müssen zusätzlich von 25MW auf 35MW gesteigert werden. Mit diesen erhöhten Schwellen wird der Anteil der abgedeckten Emissionen, der potenziell aus dem Emissionshandelssystem ausgeschlossen sein könnte, erheblich und damit eine entsprechende Regelung eingeführt, um eine entsprechende Kürzung der EU-weiten Deckung der Zertifikate zu ermöglichen.

Gibt es noch nationale Zuteilungspläne NAP. In ihren NAP für die ersten 2005-2007 und die zweiten 2008-2012 Handelsperioden haben die Mitgliedstaaten die Gesamtzahl der Zertifikate festgelegt, die der Obergrenze zuzuteilen sind und wie diese zu erreichen sind Den betreffenden Anlagen zugewiesen werden. This approach has generated significant differences in allocation rules, creating an incentive for each Member State to favour its own industry, and has led to great complexity.

As from the third trading period, there will be a single EU-wide cap and allowances will be allocated on the basis of harmonised rules. National allocation plans will therefore not be needed any more. How will the emission cap in phase 3 be determined The rules for calculating the EU-wide cap are as follows From 2013, the total number of allowances will decrease annually in a linear manner.

The starting point of this line is the average total quantity of allowances phase 2 cap to be issued by Member States for the 2008-12 period, adjusted to reflect the broadened scope of the system from 2013 as well as any small installations that Member States have chosen to exclude. The linear factor by which the annual amount shall decrease is 1. 74 in relation to the phase 2 cap.

The starting point for determining the linear factor of 1. 74 is the 20 overall reduction of greenhouse gases compared to 1990, which is equivalent to a 14 reduction compared to 2005. However, a larger reduction is required of the EU ETS because it is cheaper to reduce emissions in the ETS sectors. The division that minimises overall reduction cost amounts to a 21 reduction in EU ETS sector emissions compared to 2005 by 2020 a reduction of around 10 compared to 2005 for the sectors that are not covered by the EU ETS.

The 21 reduction in 2020 results in an ETS cap in 2020 of a maximum of 1720 million allowances and implies an average phase 3 cap 2013 to 2020 of some 1846 million allowances and a reduction of 11 compared to the phase 2 cap. All absolute figures indicated correspond to the coverage at the start of the second trading period and therefore dont take account of aviation, which will be added in 2012, and other sectors that will be added in phase 3.

The final figures for the annual emission caps in phase 3 will be determined and published by the Commission by 30 September 2010. How will the emission cap beyond phase 3 be determined The linear factor of 1. 74 used to determine the phase 3 cap will continue to apply beyond the end of the trading period in 2020 and will determine the cap for the fourth trading period 2021 to 2028 and beyond. It may be revised by 2025 at the latest. In fact, significant emission reductions of 60-80 compared to 1990 will be necessary by 2050 to reach the strategic objective of limiting the global average temperature increase to not more than 2C above pre-industrial levels.

An EU-wide cap on emission allowances will be determined for each individual year. Will this reduce flexibility for the installations concerned No, flexibility for installations will not be reduced at all. In any year, the allowances to be auctioned and distributed have to be issued by the competent authorities by 28 February. The last date for operators to surrender allowances is 30 April of the year following the year in which the emissions took place.

So operators receive allowances for the current year before they have to surrender allowances to cover their emissions for the previous year. In this respect nothing will change. The system will remain based on trading periods, but the third trading period will last eight years, from 2013 to 2020, as opposed to five years for the second phase from 2008 to 2012. For the second trading period Member States generally decided to allocate equal total quantities of allowances for each year.

Allowances remain valid throughout the trading period and any surplus allowances can now be banked for use in subsequent trading periods. The linear decrease each year from 2013 will correspond better to expected emissions trends over the period. Die Gesamtzahl der Zertifikate, die für Installationen in Industriezweigen frei zugewiesen werden, wird im Einklang mit dem Rückgang der Emissionsobergrenze jährlich sinken.

What are the tentative annual ETS cap figures for the period 2013 to 2020 The tentative annual cap figures are as follows These figures are based on the scope of the ETS as applicable in phase 2 2008 to 2012and the Commissions decisions on the national allocation plans for phase 2, amounting to 2083 million tonnes. These figures will be adjusted for several reasons.

Firstly, adjustment will be made to take into account the extensions of the scope in phase 2, provided that Member States substantiate and verify their emissions accruing from these extensions. Secondly, adjustment will be made with respect to further extensions of the scope of the ETS in the third trading period. Thirdly, any opt-out of small installations will lead to a corresponding reduction of the cap.

Fourthly, the figures do not take account of the inclusion of aviation, nor of emissions from Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Will allowances still be allocated for free Yes. Industrial installations will receive transitional free allocation. And in those Member States that are eligible for the optional derogation, power plants may, if the Member State so decides, also receive free allowances.

It is estimated that at least half of the available allowances as of 2013 will be auctioned. While the great majority of allowances has been allocated free of charge to installations in the first and second trading periods, the Commission proposed that auctioning of allowances should become the basic principle for allocation.

This is because auctioning best ensures the efficiency, transparency and simplicity of the system and creates the greatest incentive for investments in a low-carbon economy. It best complies with the polluter pays principle and avoids giving windfall profits to certain sectors that have passed on the notional cost of allowances to their customers despite receiving them for free. How will allowances be handed out for free By 31 December 2010, the Commission will adopt EU-wide rules, which will be developed under a committee procedure Comitology.

These rules will fully harmonise allocations and thus all firms across the EU with the same or similar activities will be subject to the same rules. The rules will ensure as far as possible that the allocation promotes carbon-efficient technologies. The adopted rules provide that to the extent feasible, allocations are to be based on so-called benchmarks, e. a number of allowances per quantity of historical output. Such rules reward operators that have taken early action to reduce greenhouse gases, better reflect the polluter pays principle and give stronger incentives to reduce emissions, as allocations would no longer depend on historical emissions.

All allocations are to be determined before the start of the third trading period and no ex-post adjustments will be allowed. Which installations will receive free allocations and which will not How will negative impacts on competitiveness be avoided Taking into account their ability to pass on the increased cost of emission allowances, full auctioning is the rule from 2013 onwards for electricity generators.

However, Member States who fulfil certain conditions relating to their interconnectivity or their share of fossil fuels in electricity production and GDP per capita in relation to the EU-27 average, have the option to temporarily deviate from this rule with respect to existing power plants. The auctioning rate in 2013 is to be at least 30 in relation to emissions in the first period and has to increase progressively to 100 no later than 2020.

If the option is applied, the Member State has to undertake to invest in improving and upgrading of the infrastructure, in clean technologies and in diversification of their energy mix and sources of supply for an amount to the extent possible equal to the market value of the free allocation. In other sectors, allocations for free will be phased out progressively from 2013, with Member States agreeing to start at 20 auctioning in 2013, increasing to 70 auctioning in 2020 with a view to reaching 100 in 2027.

However, an exception will be made for installations in sectors that are found to be exposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage. This risk could occur if the EU ETS increased production costs so much that companies decided to relocate production to areas outside the EU that are not subject to comparable emission constraints. To do this, the Commission will assess inter alia whether the direct and indirect additional production costs induced by the implementation of the ETS Directive as a proportion of gross value added exceed 5 and whether the total value of its exports and imports divided by the total value of its turnover and imports exceeds 10.

The Commission will determine the sectors concerned by 31 December 2009. If the result for either of these criteria exceeds 30, the sector would also be considered to be exposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage. Installations in these sectors would receive 100 of their share in the annually declining total quantity of allowances for free.

The share of these industries emissions is determined in relation to total ETS emissions in 2005 to 2007. In order to avoid such risk, Member States may grant a compensation with respect to such costs. In the absence of an international agreement on climate change, the Commission has undertaken to modify the Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection in this respect.

CO 2 costs passed on in electricity prices could also expose certain installations to the risk of carbon leakage. Under an international agreement which ensures that competitors in other parts of the world bear a comparable cost, the risk of carbon leakage may well be negligible. Therefore, by 30 June 2010, the Commission will carry out an in-depth assessment of the situation of energy-intensive industry and the risk of carbon leakage, in the light of the outcome of the international negotiations and also taking into account any binding sectoral agreements that may have been concluded.

The report will be accompanied by any proposals considered appropriate. These could potentially include maintaining or adjusting the proportion of allowances received free of charge to industrial installations that are particularly exposed to global competition or including importers of the products concerned in the ETS. Each Member State has to decide whether it wants to develop its own auctioning infrastructure and platform or whether it wants to cooperate with other Member States to develop regional or EU-wide solutions.

Who will organise the auctions and how will they be carried out Member States will be responsible for ensuring that the allowances given to them are auctioned. The distribution of the auctioning rights to Member States is largely based on emissions in phase 1 of the EU ETS, but a part of the rights will be redistributed from richer Member States to poorer ones to take account of the lower GDP per head and higher prospects for growth and emissions among the latter.

It is still the case that 10 of the rights to auction allowances will be redistributed from Member States with high per capita income to those with low per capita income in order to strengthen the financial capacity of the latter to invest in climate friendly technologies. However, a provision has been added for another redistributive mechanism of 2 to take into account Member States which in 2005 had achieved a reduction of at least 20 in greenhouse gas emissions compared with the reference year set by the Kyoto Protocol.

Nine Member States benefit from this provision. Any auctioning must respect the rules of the internal market and must therefore be open to any potential buyer under non-discriminatory conditions. By 30 June 2010, the Commission will adopt a Regulation through the comitology procedure that will provide the appropriate rules and conditions for ensuring efficient, coordinated auctions without disturbing the allowance market.

How many allowances will each Member State auction and how is this amount determined All allowances which are not allocated free of charge will be auctioned. A total of 88 of allowances to be auctioned by each Member State is distributed on the basis of the Member States share of historic emissions under the EU ETS. Which sectors and gases are covered as of 2013 The ETS covers installations performing specified activities.

For purposes of solidarity and growth, 12 of the total quantity is distributed in a way that takes into account GDP per capita and the achievements under the Kyoto-Protocol. Since the start it has covered, above certain capacity thresholds, power stations and other combustion plants, oil refineries, coke ovens, iron and steel plants and factories making cement, glass, lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp, paper and board. As for greenhouse gases, it currently only covers carbon dioxide emissions, with the exception of the Netherlands, which has opted in emissions from nitrous oxide.

As from 2013, the scope of the ETS will be extended to also include other sectors and greenhouse gases. CO 2 emissions from petrochemicals, ammonia and aluminium will be included, as will N2O emissions from the production of nitric, adipic and glyocalic acid production and perfluorocarbons from the aluminium sector.

The capture, transport and geological storage of all greenhouse gas emissions will also be covered. These sectors will receive allowances free of charge according to EU-wide rules, in the same way as other industrial sectors already covered. As of 2012, aviation will also be índice iq option in the EU ETS. Will small installations be excluded from the scope A large number of installations emitting relatively low amounts of CO 2 are currently covered by the ETS and concerns have been raised over the cost-effectiveness of their inclusion.

As from 2013, Member States will be allowed to remove these installations from the ETS under certain conditions. The installations concerned are those whose reported emissions were lower than 25 000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent in each of the 3 years preceding the year of application. For combustion installations, an additional capacity threshold of 35MW applies. In addition Member States are given the possibility to exclude installations operated by hospitals.

The installations may be excluded from the ETS only if they will be covered by measures that will achieve an equivalent contribution to emission reductions. How many emission credits from third countries will be allowed For the second trading period, Member States allowed their operators to use significant quantities of credits generated by emission-saving projects undertaken in third countries to cover part of their emissions in the same way as they use ETS allowances.

The revised Directive extends the rights to use these credits for the third trading period and allows a limited additional quantity to be used in such a way that the overall use of credits is limited to 50 of the EU-wide reductions over the period 2008-2020. For existing installations, and excluding new sectors within the scope, this will represent a total level of access of approximately 1. In practice, this means that existing operators will be able to use credits up to a minimum of 11 of their allocation during the period 2008-2012, while a top-up is foreseen for operators with the lowest sum of free allocation and allowed use of credits in the 2008-2012 period.

New sectors and new entrants in the third trading period will have a guaranteed minimum access of 4. For the aviation sector, the minimum access will be 1. 6 billion credits over the period 2008-2020. The precise percentages will be determined through comitology. These projects must be officially recognised under the Kyoto Protocols Joint Implementation JI mechanism covering projects carried out in countries with an índice iq option reduction target under the Protocol or Clean Development Mechanism CDM for projects undertaken in developing countries.

Credits from JI projects are known as Emission Reduction Units ERUs while those from CDM projects are called Certified Emission Reductions CERs. On the quality side only credits from project types eligible for use in the EU trading scheme during the period 2008-2012 will be accepted in the period 2013-2020. Such a quality control mechanism is needed to assure the environmental and economic integrity of future project types.

To create greater flexibility, and in the absence of an international agreement being concluded by 31 December 2009, credits could be used in accordance with agreements concluded with third countries. Furthermore, from 1 January 2013 measures may be applied to restrict the use of specific credits from project types. The use of these credits should however not increase the overall number beyond 50 of the required reductions. Such agreements would not be required for new projects that started from 2013 onwards in Least Developed Countries.

additional access to credits could be allowed, as well as the use of additional types of project credits or other mechanisms created under the international agreement. However, once an international agreement has been reached, from January 2013 onwards only credits from projects in third countries that have ratified the agreement or from additional types of project approved by the Commission will be eligible for use in the Community scheme.

Based on a stricter emissions reduction in the context of a satisfactory international agreement. Will it be possible to use credits from carbon sinks like forests No. Before making its proposal, the Commission analysed the possibility of allowing credits from certain types of land use, land-use change and forestry LULUCF projects which absorb carbon from the atmosphere. It concluded that doing so could undermine the environmental integrity of the EU ETS, for the following reasons LULUCF projects cannot physically deliver permanent emissions reductions.

Insufficient solutions have been developed to deal with the uncertainties, non-permanence of carbon storage and potential emissions leakage problems arising from such projects. The temporary and reversible nature of such activities would pose considerable risks in a company-based trading system and impose great liability risks on Member States.

This is not available at present and is likely to incur costs which would substantially reduce the attractiveness of including such projects. The simplicity, transparency and predictability of the ETS would be considerably reduced. Moreover, the sheer quantity of potential credits entering the system could undermine the functioning of the carbon market unless their role were limited, in which case their potential benefits would become marginal.

The inclusion of LULUCF projects in the ETS would require a quality of monitoring and reporting comparable to the monitoring and reporting of emissions from installations currently covered by the system. The Commission, the Council and the European Parliament believe that global deforestation can be better addressed through other instruments. For example, using part of the proceeds from auctioning allowances in the EU ETS could generate additional means to invest in LULUCF activities both inside and outside the EU, and may provide a model for future expansion.

In this respect the Commission has proposed to set up the Global Forest Carbon Mechanism that would be a performance-based system for financing reductions in deforestation levels in developing countries. Besides those already mentioned, are there other credits that could be used in the revised ETS Yes. Projects in EU Member States which reduce greenhouse gas emissions not covered by the ETS could issue credits. These Community projects would need to be managed according to common EU provisions set up by the Commission in order to be tradable throughout the system.

Such provisions would be adopted only for projects that cannot be realised through inclusion in the ETS. The provisions will seek to ensure that credits from Community projects do not result in double-counting of emission reductions nor impede other policy measures to reduce emissions not covered by the ETS, and that they are based on simple, easily administered rules.

Are there measures in place to ensure that the price of allowances wont fall sharply during the third trading period A stable and predictable regulatory framework is vital for market stability. Important elements in this respect are the determination of the cap on emissions in the Directive well in advance of the start of the trading period, a linear reduction factor for the cap on emissions which continues to apply also beyond 2020 and the extension of the trading period from 5 to 8 years.

The revised Directive makes the regulatory framework as predictable as possible in order to boost stability and rule out policy-induced volatility. The sharp fall in the allowance price during the first trading period was due to over-allocation of allowances which could not be banked for use in the second trading period. For the second and subsequent trading periods, Member States are obliged to allow the banking of allowances from one period to the next and therefore the end of one trading period is not expected to have any impact on the price.

A new provision will apply as of 2013 in case of excessive price fluctuations in the allowance market. If, for more than six consecutive months, the allowance price is more than three times the average price of allowances during the two preceding years on the European market, the Commission will convene a meeting with Member States. If it is found that the price evolution does not correspond to market fundamentals, the Commission may either allow Member States to bring forward the auctioning of a part of the quantity to be auctioned, or allow them to auction up to 25 of the remaining allowances in the new entrant reserve.

The price of allowances is determined by supply and demand and reflects fundamental factors like economic growth, fuel prices, rainfall and wind availability of renewable energy and temperature demand for heating and cooling etc. A degree of uncertainty is inevitable for such factors. The markets, however, allow participants to hedge the risks that may result from changes in allowances prices. Are there any provisions for linking the EU ETS to other emissions trading systems Yes.

One of the key means to reduce emissions more cost-effectively is to enhance and further develop the global carbon market. The Commission sees the EU ETS as an important building block for the development of a global network of emission trading systems. Linking other national or regional cap-and-trade emissions trading systems to the EU ETS can create a bigger market, potentially lowering the aggregate cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The increased liquidity and reduced price volatility that this would entail would improve the functioning of markets for emission allowances. This may lead to a global network of trading systems in which participants, including legal entities, can buy emission allowances to fulfil their respective reduction commitments.

The EU is keen to work with the new US Administration to build a transatlantic and indeed global carbon market to act as the motor of a concerted international push to combat climate change. While the original Directive allows for linking the EU ETS with other industrialised countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the new rules allow for linking with any country or administrative entity such as a state or group of states under a federal system which has established a compatible mandatory cap-and-trade system whose design elements would not undermine the environmental integrity of the EU ETS.

Where such systems cap absolute emissions, there would be mutual recognition of allowances issued by them and the EU ETS. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol in its own right, the Community is also obliged to maintain a registry. This is the Community Registry, which is distinct from the registries of Member States. Allowances issued from 1 January 2013 onwards will be held in the Community registry instead of in national registries.

A separate Regulation on the verification of emission reports and the accreditation of verifiers should specify conditions for accreditation, mutual recognition and cancellation of accreditation for verifiers, and for supervision and peer review as appropriate. What provision will be made for new entrants into the market Five percent of the total quantity of allowances will be put into a reserve for new installations or airlines that enter the system after 2013 new entrants.

Will there be any changes to monitoring, reporting and verification requirements The Commission will adopt a new Regulation through the comitology procedure by 31 December 2011 governing the monitoring and reporting of emissions from the activities listed in Annex I of the Directive. The allocations from this reserve should mirror the allocations to corresponding existing installations.

A part of the new entrant reserve, amounting to 300 million allowances, will be made available to support the investments in up to 12 demonstration projects using the carbon capture and storage technology and demonstration projects using innovative renewable energy technologies. There should be a fair geographical distribution of the projects. In principle, any allowances remaining in the reserve shall be distributed to Member States for auctioning.

What is a Community registry and how does it work Registries are standardised electronic databases ensuring the accurate accounting of the issuance, holding, transfer and cancellation of emission allowances. The distribution key shall take into account the level to which installations in Member States have benefited from this reserve. This amendment has later been extended to include also innovative renewable energy technologies that are not commercially viable yet.

Projects shall be selected on the basis of objective and transparent criteria that include requirements for knowledge sharing. Support shall be given from the proceeds of these allowances via Member States and shall be complementary to substantial co-financing by the operator of the installation. No project shall receive support via this mechanism that exceeds 15 of the total number of allowances i. 45 million allowances available for this purpose.

The Member State may choose to co-finance the project as well, but will in any case transfer the market value of the attributed allowances to the operator, who will not receive any allowances. A total of 300 million allowances will therefore be set aside until 2015 for this purpose. What has been agreed with respect to the financing of the 12 carbon capture and storage demonstration projects requested by a previous European Council The European Parliaments Environment Committee tabled an amendment to the EU ETS Directive requiring allowances in the new entrant reserve to be set aside in order to co-finance up to 12 demonstration projects as requested by the European Council in spring 2007.

On the basis of this report, the Commission shall then adopt a legislative proposal amending the present Directive as appropriate. For the effects on the use of credits from Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects, please see the reply to question 20. What are the next steps Member States have to bring into force the legal instruments necessary to comply with certain provisions of the revised Directive by 31 December 2009. What is the role of an international agreement and its potential impact on EU ETS When an international agreement is reached, the Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and the Council assessing the nature of the measures agreed upon in the international agreement and their implications, in particular with respect to the risk of carbon leakage.

For the remaining provisions, the national laws, regulations and administrative provisions only have to be ready by 31 December 2012. This concerns the collection of duly substantiated and verified emissions data from installations that will only be covered by the EU ETS as from 2013, and the national lists of installations and the allocation to each one. The Commission has already started the work on implementation. For example, the collection and analysis of data for use in relation to carbon leakage is ongoing list of sectors due end 2009.

Work is also ongoing to prepare the Regulation on timing, administration and other aspects of auctioning due by June 2010the harmonised allocation rules due end 2010 and the índice iq option Regulations on monitoring and reporting of emissions and verification of emissions and accreditation of verifiers due end 2011. Article 19 1 of Directive 200387EC requires that all emission allowances issued from 1 January 2012 onwards must be held in a Union Registry on accounts managed by the European Union Member States.

The EU system of emission allowances registries has been operational since January 2005 and provides a standardised and secure system of electronic registries which tracks the issuance, holding, transfer and cancellation of all allowances issued under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme EU ETS. Initially each EU Member State had a its own emissions alllowances registry. In 2012, these registries were replaced by the single Union Registry, which provides a harmonized basis to transfer allowances across the EU.

Also the allocation processes in phase 3 of the EU ETS are performed centrally in the Union Registry, both for the allocation of allowances to stationary and aircraft operators for free and for the auctioning of allowances through the common and two opt-out auction platforms. The said Regulation applies to allowances created for the EU ETS third trading period commencing on 1 January 2013 as well as for subsequent periods, annual emission allocation units and Kyoto units.

It also applies to aviation allowances to be auctioned that were created for the trading period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012. In 2013 the Registry Regulation has been once more revised to finalise the functionalities needed for phase 3 of the EU ETS and to incorporate the accounting of transactions under the Effort Sharing Decision. In relation to the EU ETS, the revised Registry Regulation also provides for the mechanism to implement the provisions of Article 11a of the EU ETS Directive whereby operators can exchange international credits for allowances.

Articles concerning issues involving EU ETS emission allowances registry For details that this legislative measure brings as regards CER and ERU regulatory EU ETS environment in the third trading period see CERs and ERUs market as from 2013. This was due to the need to determine, in the course of the finalisation of preparations of EU ETS Phase 3, the details for the exchange process of JI and CDM credits held by companies with compliance obligations under the EU ETS into Phase 3 allowances see the Commissions Staff Working Document of 25 July 2012.

Further potential improvements to the EU ETS registry infrastructure can be inferred from recital 27 of the Registry Regulation, which indicates Since it may be desirable to provide for additional account types or other means that would facilitate the holding of allowances or Kyoto units on behalf of third parties, or the taking of a security interest in them, these issues should be examined in the context of a future review of this Regulation.

EU ETS Registry Regulation role is far more significant than merely providing for technical measures for securing the transactions in emission allowances are recorded on the relevant accounts. Particularly facilitating the taking security interest in emission allowances would be noteworthy for carbon market participants. Also other interesting designs, like for instance consolidated account present under the California cap-and-trade rules, would be worth considering.

Of equal or even more importance are provisions that harmonise certain aspects of Member States civil law to ensure that the free circulation of carbon credits after they are registered in accounts in the Union Registry can be challenged only in limited circumstances. The reasons for this are explained in the recitals to the said Regulation, which elaborate as follows As allowances and Kyoto units exist only in dematerialised form and are fungible, the title to an allowance or Kyoto unit should be established by their existence in the account of the Union Registry in which they are held.

Moreover, to reduce the risks associated with the reversal of transactions entered in a registry, and the consequent disruption to the system and to the market that such reversal may cause, it is necessary to ensure that allowances and Kyoto units are fully fungible. In particular, transactions cannot be reversed, revoked or unwound, other than as defined by the rules of the registry, after a moment set out by those rules.

Nothing in this Regulation should prevent an account holder or a third party from exercising any right or claim resulting from the underlying transaction that they may have in law to recovery or restitution in respect of a transaction that has entered a system, such as in case of fraud or technical error, as long as this does not lead to the reversal, revocation or unwinding of the transaction. Furthermore, the acquisition of an allowance or Kyoto unit in good faith should be protected.

For further details and practical conseqences of the above precedent rules see some of articles in the box. Another key provision in the EU ETS Registry Regulation relates to cross-border issues and stipulates that accounts in the Union Registry are governed by the laws and fall under the jurisdiction of the Member State of their administrator and the units held in them are considered to be situated in that Member States territory.

Forex Broker Betroffen Von Swiss Franc. USDCHF US DollarSwiss Franc Das USDCHF Paar wird auch als ldquoDollar Swissrdquo bezeichnet. Der Schweizer Franken wird weitgehend als eine sichere Hafenwährung bei den Wirtschaftsbeteiligten angesehen, vor allem, weil die Schweiz auf allen politischen und wirtschaftlichen Grenzen, die die Eurozone betreffen, weiterhin neutral ist und bleibt. Der Schweizer Franken macht 6,4 aller Forex-Spot-Transaktionen nach der Triennial-Umfrage 2010 und 2,2 des Welthandels 2010-2011 aus.

Die Europäische Union ist der größte Handelspartner der Schweiz, und die Schweiz ist die viertgrößte EU der EU. Die Schweiz macht 5,2 Einfuhren aus. Es gibt über 400 Banken in der Schweiz, da die Schweizer für anspruchsvolle, diskrete und konservative Bankdienstleistungen bekannt sind. Der Schweizer Franken wird in vielen Fällen als ldquoDollar Swissrdquo, der ldquoSwissierdquo oder der ldquoFrancrdquo bezeichnet.

Die bekanntesten Ausfuhrgüter, die aus der Schweiz stammen, sind Uhren, Schokolade und Käse, aber in Wirklichkeit machen Maschinen - und Elektrotechnik und Chemie zusammen mehr als die Hälfte der Schweizer Exporterlöse aus. USDCHF Handelsmerkmale Die Schweiz blieb während des Ersten Weltkriegs und des Zweiten Weltkrieges neutral und verdiente damit ihren Titel als ldquosafe Havenrdquo-Währung, weshalb die meisten Händler dieses Währungspaar anziehen.

Dieses Währungspaar ist nicht so flüssig wie andere wichtige Währungspaare, dennoch bietet es reibungslose Markttrends im Vergleich zu hochvolatilen Paaren. Der USDCHF erlebt in Zeiten politischer Unruhen gewöhnlich Bewegung. CHF ist der Kürzel für die Währung, für die der CH steht für Confoederatio Helvetica und der F steht für Franc. USD - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika AED - Vereinigte Arabische Emirate ARS - Argentinien AUD - Australien BGN - Bulgarien BRL - Brasilien CAD - Kanada CHF - Schweiz CLP - Chile CNY - China CZK - Tschechische Republik DKK - Dänemark EGP - Ägypten EUR - Europäische Union GBP - Vereinigtes Königreich HKD - Hongkong HRK - Kroatien HUF - Ungarn IDR - Indonesien ILS - Israel INR - Indien ISK - Island JPY - Japan KRW - Südkorea KWD - Kuwait LBP - Libanon LTL - Litauen LVL - Lettland MXN - Mexiko MYR - Malaysia NOK - Norwegen NZD - Neuseeland PEN - Peru PHP - Philippinen PLN - Polen QAR - Katar RON - Rumänien RUB - Russland SEK - Schweden SGD - Singapur THB - Thailand TRY - Türkei TWD - Taiwan USD - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika XAG - Argentinien AUD - Australien BG - Bulgarien BRL - Brasilien CAD - Kanada CHF - Schweiz CLP - Chile CNY - China CZK - Tschechische Republik DKK - Dänemark EGP - Ägypten EUR - Europäische Union GBP - Großbritannien Vereinigtes Königreich HKD - Hongkong HRK - Kroatien HUF - Ungarn IDR - Indonesien ILS - Israel INR - Indien ISK - Island JPY - Japan KRW - Südkorea KWD - Kuwait LBP - Libanon LTL - Litauen LVL - Lettland MXN - Mexiko MYR - Malaysia NOK - Norwegen NZD - Neuseeland PEN - Peru PHP - Philippinen PLN - Polen QAR - Katar RON - Rumänien RUB - Russland SEK - Schweden SGD - Singapur THB - Thailand TRY - Türkei TWD - Taiwan USD - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika XAG - Silber XAU - Gold XPD - Palladium Unze ZAR - SüdafrikaDer Schweizer Franken ist die Währung und gesetzliches Zahlungsmittel für die Schweiz und Liechtenstein.

Die Schweiz ist konsequent als eines der reichsten Länder der Welt aufgeführt, mit einigen der höchsten BIP-pro-Kopf-Statistiken der Welt. Die Schweiz gilt auch als eines der ältesten Länder und verfolgt die Wurzeln der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft bis zum Jahr 1291. News und Analyse von Christopher Vecchio von Jamie Saettele, CMT von James Stanley von Jamie Saettele, CMT von Christopher Vecchio Load Weitere Artikel Von Jamie Saettele, CMT von James Stanley von Jamie Saettele, CMT von Ilya Spivak von Jamie Saettele, CMT A Tatsächliche F Prognose P Bisheriger Marktdatenmarkt Daten werden für den Handelstag zur Verfügung gestellt.

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00 Montag bis 00. 00 Samstag EET. Sofortiger Zugang zu unseren Kundendienstspezialisten 24 Stunden. Wir übernehmen alle Unterlagen und senden Ihnen die erste Kopie einer Vereinbarung. Swift und verschiedene Einzahlungs - und Auszahlungsmöglichkeiten. Sie können ein Konto in EUR, USD, EUR, GBP und CHF eröffnen. Banküberweisungen in EURO, USD, elektronische Zahlungen via Webmoney-System, Kreditkarten-Nachschub. Alle Rückzugsoperationen werden durch eine spezielle Ausrüstung gesichert, die die Sicherheit Ihrer Fonds gewährleistet.

Informationen für den erfolgreichen Handel Eine einzigartige Analyse basierend auf dem neuesten mathematischen Modell. Es dauert nur wenige Minuten, um ein Konto zu eröffnen. Ausgezeichneter Service Handelsschalter ist über Internet oder Telefon erreichbar 24 Stunden 00. Exklusive Tagesindikatoren für die Untersuchung von Devisenderivate-Märkten. Kostenlose Newsfeed von Dow Jones MoneyNews GlobalOnline Forex Broker zu wählen Der Online-Forex-Broker FreshForex arbeitet seit 2004 am Devisenmarkt.

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Wir tun unser Bestes, um Ihnen die bequemsten, profitabelsten und zuverlässigsten Dienstleistungen. Ihr Browser unterstützt kein Javascript. So aktivieren Sie Cookie-Support. Forex Trading-Berater in Ahmedabad Wo in Ahmedabad Was ist nur Dial Verified Just DialJD überprüft bedeutet, die Informationen im Zusammenhang mit Name, Adresse, Kontakt-Details der Betriebe wurden als bestehende zum Zeitpunkt der Registrierung eines Inserenten überprüft worden Mit einfachem Zifferblatt.

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FOREX NA IQ OPTION \u0026 MINI INDICE - ESTRATEGIA SUPORTE + MEDIA MOVEL 200, time: 5:51
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25.01.2020 : 19:55 Medal:
Ein besonderes Modul für die Struktursuche erfolgen kann.

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